Puppy selection (part 1)
Choosing a puppy is no less important than choosing a life partner. Despite its amusement, a pug is not a living toy, but a friend for many years. Acquiring a…

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IQ Option https://www.iqoption.ci en Côte d Ivoire
VEGETABLES, FRUITS, CEREALS, BROADS ON THE MENU OF YOUR Pug.
Feeding vegetables and fruits is not necessary, because dogs by and large do not really need carbohydrates in the diet. Despite the fact that these products make up a very…

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Pug character
The pug has an excellent character, the dog is a kind and very sociable creature. He loves to play and have fun, while the dog is considered not very active.…

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Pigment keratitis in pugs

The cornea is the transparent part of the anterior membrane of the eye that transmits light. Normal healthy cornea is transparent. Keratitis is a corneal disease in which usually transparent cells are filled with pigment. Pigment keratitis is the process of losing the transparency of the cornea and staining the cells brown. In foreign publications, the disease is called “pigmentary keratopathy”.

Pigment keratitis, in fact, resembles a thick layer of dirt on the windshield of a car. Rare mud spray cannot spoil the view, but if the entire glass (or cornea) is covered with dirt (or deposits of pigment), functional blindness occurs. Pigment keratitis is often found in pugs and other brachycephalic breeds. The reason why the amount of pigment begins to progress is not yet clear.
Dog eye chart, compiled by Dr. Carrie Bro test
CLINICAL PHOTOS OF PIGMENTAL KERATITIS
it looks like a healthy eye in a pug
In a healthy pug, the cornea of ​​the eye is clean, without pigmentation that interferes with vision. Please note that the cornea is absolutely clean, without pigmentation, damage, blood vessels, and the inside of the eye is clearly visible.

This pug suffered very little from pigment keratitis. Pay attention to the focus of pigment on the left (discoloration to brown) and traces of fibrosis (discoloration to gray). Pigment keratitis usually begins with the outer edge of the cornea and gradually progresses to the center.

Note that the pigment spreads closer to the center of the cornea, covering an increasingly large space. Eye drops were dripping on the dog in the photo, as a result of which there was reflection on the tapetal film (light reflected from the inside of the eye), giving a turquoise hue. This reflection does not contradict the norm.

The pigment has gained a strong density, it is almost impossible to see the inside of the eye. The vision of this dog is very affected.

Pay attention to the density of the pigment and the inability to examine the inside of the eye. The white spot in the left part of the photo is a reflection of the photographer’s hand. The vision of this dog is extremely affected.

CONGENITAL DEFECTS - A WOLF'S WOLF, WHEN AND WHY (part 1)
I hope that you will never have a litter of puppies with wolf's mouth. But if this happens, there are a number of reasons that can explain the appearance of…

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"Bad advice" or A brief guide to parenting (part 1)
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"Bad advice" or A brief guide to parenting (part 2)
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