ADDITIVES TO DIET
A healthy dog ​​that eats a variety of foods does not need special additives and vitamins, but there are several products that we recommend introducing in the menu in small…

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A bit about pugs
For me, a pug is a small home orc. Round ottoman with legs, insanely affectionate and gentle beast. My pug is my first dog, and I do not regret at…

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Puppy selection (part 1)
Choosing a puppy is no less important than choosing a life partner. Despite its amusement, a pug is not a living toy, but a friend for many years. Acquiring a…

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CONGENITAL DEFECTS – A WOLF’S WOLF, WHEN AND WHY (part 3)

SHORT EXTRACTS FROM DISEASE HISTORY

A few years ago, one member of the Kennel Club of the Ohio State received a small litter of puppies with cleft palates. One puppy had a cleft palate, the other had a cleft palate and cleft lip, while the third had all internal organs outside the chest and abdomen. This is an example of how a midline closure defect can manifest on the abdominal part. All puppies in the litter died.

After some research, she found out that it was due to chemicals that a pregnant bitch inhaled or absorbed. Nothing in her house or yard could cause this, so she began to find out from her neighbors if anyone had sprayed any chemicals (pesticides, insecticides, herbicides) in the yard. In the end, she found out that a neighbor across the road invited a well-known company to work on the lawn in front of the house, but after processing he did not put warning flags. Thus, for a day or two, the bitch inhaled and absorbed through the pores of the paws the chemicals that treated the lawn. This happened during a critical period in embryo development, when exposure to chemicals is more than likely to cause this problem. The first trimester of pregnancy is the time of greatest risk.

Once I tied my bitch (with a very good temperament) to a famous winner named Hein, choosing him for his pigment and hips; one of the females from this litter had a very unbalanced temperament. When this bitch grew up, the owners tied her up. During the first trimester of pregnancy, this bitch suffered a sudden and traumatic fright. Even though the fright lasted only a few minutes, her excitement was at its peak for several hours, which affected her future litter. All puppies were born with cleft palates, in addition, two of them were with cleft lips. All puppies were euthanized. More than this bitch never in her life gave birth to puppies with similar defects.

Such deviations from the norm of the midline closure are possible for psychophysiological reasons, when a bitch is stressed at a certain stage of pregnancy. Her own hormonal emissions act just like steroids. Although, of course, bitches with a stable psyche are less susceptible to stress than excitable or bitches with a weak psyche.

When I mentioned this observation in an article in a magazine, someone asked me in a letter – how can this theory relate to the relationship between facial cleft and brachycephaly? Short-faced bitches are more nervous or perhaps excitable? Or can it only be a genetic factor? No, I replied, there are more reasons for this. Excited temperament can, and usually has, genetic prerequisites, however, like any unusual or “irritable” reaction to changes in steroid levels. Plus, brachycephalic dogs, although beautiful in the eyes of their owners, are short-faced due to the improper structure of the pituitary gland. This gland, directly or indirectly, affects the work of all other endocrine glands and hormones. Including those that affect the appearance of a cleft palate. Perhaps the defect, the cause of which is a bulldog muzzle with an upturned nose and an underdeveloped upper jaw, goes “foot in foot” with a defect that is directly or indirectly associated with the normal midline closure of the embryo in the final stage of pregnancy.

Although many breeders (sick with “nursery blindness”) of Lhasa-Apso and other short-faced breeds claim that this opinion is not supported by anything that we know about endocrinology or genetics, I have studied physiology and genetics enough to disagree with them. It is generally assumed that the types of structure, for example, the shape of the head (some breeds, such as St. Bernard, Newfoundland, etc., retain a “childish” expression with age) are associated with the function of the pituitary gland and growth hormones that interact with other hormones. It has long been known that breeds with faces like Pugs / Pekingese / Bulldogs are physiologically different in many respects from breeds with a “natural” head shape (German Shepherd Dog, Alaskan Malamute, Spitz, etc.). I leave it against the opposition to come up with a better explanation of why all brachycephalic breeds have the appearance of a dog “meeting” with a brick wall at a speed of 35 miles per hour.

One West Highland White Terrier breeder wrote to me: “We also had a whole litter of puppies with wolf’s mouths. In the lines of a male and a female, such defects have never been encountered. In fact, we knitted a male and a female, after making sure of the “purity” of their lines. We discussed this problem with many veterinarians and they decided that this could be the result of a viral infection from a bitch during a critical period of pregnancy. ”This is possible. Environmental malfunctions can cause bodily malfunctions. The same correspondent later wrote: “Thank you! This explains the appearance of a puppy with a wolf’s mouth, which we had last year, after our two bitches had a serious fight.

Puppy selection (part 1)
Choosing a puppy is no less important than choosing a life partner. Despite its amusement, a pug is not a living toy, but a friend for many years. Acquiring a…

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ARGUMENTS FOR THE NATURAL FEEDING OF DOGS
At the molecular level, the dog’s DNA is almost identical to wolf’s DNA: the difference is reflected in 0.2% of the mitochondrial DNA chain. On a scale of genetic material,…

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A few words about colors
Pugs come in two colors - beige and black. Beige color can be of 2 types: silver deer and apricot deer. Silver-deer (“glitter of the moon”) is a pure deer…

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About walks
For proper physical development, daily walks in the fresh air in any weather are necessary. The pug must have well-developed and strong muscles. And without proper training, this cannot be…

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